Young's Modulus
Properties of Matter

Young’s (or should it be yum’s?) modulus of food and other measurements

Stories from Physics for 11-14 14-16 IOP RESOURCES

Food scientists study the mechanical properties of food and have calculated the Young’s moduli of a range of foods.

FoodYoung's modulus
Tofu6 kPa-14 kPa
Marshmallows29 kPa
Gummy bears70 kPa
Cheddar cheese240 kPa
Carrots7 MPa
Popcorn Kernels325 MPa
  •   An analysis of the material properties of chocolate concludes that adding fat decreases the rigidity and yield strength of samples.
  •  Stress-stain graphs have been plotted for various parts of the human anatomy including a cornea, a tendon, tooth enamel, skin, and human and canine vocal folds.
  •  Neutrons are calculated to have a Young’s modulus 20 orders of magnitude greater than diamond and are thought to be the most rigid known objects.



Young’s (or should it be yum’s) modulus of food and other measurements
M. M. Ak, & S. Gunasekaran, Stress-strain curve analysis of Cheddar cheese under uniaxial compression. Journal of Food Science, vol. 57, no. 5, 1992, pp. 1078-1081.
S. H. Williams, B. W. Wright, V. D. Truong, C. R. Daubert, & J. C. Vinyard, Mechanical properties of foods used in experimental studies of primate masticatory function. American Journal of Primatology: Official Journal of the American Society of Primatologists, vol. 67 no. 3, 2005, pp. 329-346.
V. De Graef, F. Depypere, M. Minnaert, & K. Dewettinck, Chocolate yield stress as measured by oscillatory rheology. Food Research International, vol. 44, no. 9, 2011, 2660-2665.
A. J. Pattison, M. McGarry, J. B. Weaver, K. D. & Paulsen, A dynamic mechanical analysis technique for porous media. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 62, no. 2, 2014, pp. 443-449.
K. A. Pestka, Young’s Modulus of a Marshmallow, The Physics Teacher, vol. 46, no. 140, 2008, pp. 140-141.
G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, & T. Seiler, Stress-strain measurements of human and porcine corneas after riboflavin–ultraviolet-A-induced cross-linking. Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, vol. 29, no. 9, 2003, 1780-1785.
J. V. Benedict, L. B. Walker, & E. H. Harris, Stress-strain characteristics and tensile strength of unembalmed human tendon. Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 1, no. 53, 1968, pp. 1157-5663.
L. H. He, N. Fujisawa, & M. V. Swain, Elastic modulus and stress–strain response of human enamel by nano-indentation. Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 24, 2006, pp. 4388-4398.
F. H. Silver, J. W. Freeman, & D. DeVore, Viscoelastic properties of human skin and processed dermis. Skin Research and Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, 2001, pp. 18-23
Q. T. Tran, B. R. Gerratt, G. S. Berke, & J. Kreiman, Measurement of Young’s modulus in the in vivo human vocal folds. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, vol. 102, no. 8, 1993, p. 584-591.
Y. B. Min, I. R. Titze, & F. Alipour-Haghighi, Stress-strain response of the human vocal ligament. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, vol. 104, no. 7, 1995, pp. 563-569.
A. Bolonkin, Universe, Human Immortality and Future Human Evaluation, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2012, p. 27

Young's Modulus
appears in the relation E=σ/ε
can be represented by Stress-Strain Graphs
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