Students may have incorrect ideas about atomic models

Quantum and Nuclear


Students’ atomic models include: (1) A planetary model, in which the electron orbits in a circle of constant radius, (2) a transitional model, in which the electron moves along a sinusoidal path, and (3) a probabilistic model, in which the position of the electron is uncertain.



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  • Prather, E., () Student' Beliefs about the role of atoms in radioactive decay and half-life, Journal of Geoscience Education, 53 (4)


  • Petri, J. and Niedderer, H., () A learning pathway in high‐school level quantum atomic physics, International Journal of Science Education, 20 (9)


  • Müller, R. and Wiesner, H. () Teaching quantum mechanics on an introductory level, American Journal of Physics, 70 (3)


    DOI: 10.1119/1.1435346

  • Fischler, H. and Lichtfeldt, M. () Modern Physics and Students' Conceptions, International Journal of Science Education, 14 (2)


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