Some students think that oxygen and hydrogen condense together to form water droplets

Properties of Matter



  • Osborne, R. and Cosgrove, M., () Children's conceptions of the changes of state of water, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20 (9),


  • Tsai, C., () Overcoming Junior High School Students' Misconceptions about Microscopic Views of Phase Change: A Study of an Analogy Activity, Journal of Science Education and Technology, 8 (1),


    Review sheet

Limit Less Campaign

Support our manifesto for change

The IOP wants to support young people to fulfil their potential by doing physics. Please sign the manifesto today so that we can show our politicians there is widespread support for improving equity and inclusion across the education sector.

Sign today