Some students think that the orientation of Earth’s axis of rotation with respect to the Sun does not change during the year
Resources to address this
The movement of the Earth and the seasons (11-14)
Ref - SPT ES04 TA06
This is a simple but effective demonstration of the daily and annual movement of the Earth.
The first activity is essential to grasp the point that the axis of rotation of the Earth is tilted at 23.5 ° to the plane in which it orbits the Sun. This means that the angle of incidence of the Sun's rays will vary between winter and summer.View Resource
The following studies have documented this misconception:
- Victor, R. L., () How Different Variants of Orbit Diagrams Inﬂuence Student Explanations of the Seasons Science Education, 94