Most pupils see the battery as the source of electrical effects in a circuit.
Resources to Address This
Two Jobs for the Battery (11-14)
Source - SPT/ El01PN04
This resource looks at the role of the battery in a simple electric circuit.View Resource
The following studies have documented this misconception:
- Küçüközer, H. and Kocakülah, S. () Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Simple Electric Circuits. Journal of Turkish Science Education.
- Küçüközer, H. and Kocakülah, S. () Effect of Simple Electric Circuits Teaching on Conceptual Change in Grade 9 Physics Course. Journal of Turkish Science Education.
- Azaiza, I.; Bar, V. and Galili, I. () Learning electricity in elementary school. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 4 (1),
- Psillos, D.; Tiberghien, A. and Koumaras, P. () Voltage presented as a primary concept in an introductory teaching sequence on DC circuits. International Journal of Science Education, 10 (1),
- Selman, R. L.; Krupa, M. P.; Stone, C. R. and Jaquette, D. S. () Concrete Operational Thought and the Emergence of the Concept of Unseen Force in Children’s Theories of Electromagnetism and Gravity. Science Education, 66 (2),
- Summers, M.; Kruger, C. and Mant, J. () Teaching electricity effectively in the primary school: a case study. International Journal of Science Education, 20 (2),
- Borges, A. T. and Gilbert, J. K. () Mental models of electricity. International Journal of Science Education, 21 (1),
- Eylon, B. S. and Ganiel, U. () Macro-micro relationships: the missing link between electrostatics and electrodynamics in students' reasoning. International Journal of Science Education, 12 (1),
- Leone, M. () History of Physics as a Tool to Detect the Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Students: The Case of Simple Electric Circuits in Primary Education. Science & Education, 23 (4),
- Heller, P. M. and Finley, F. N. () Variable Uses of Alternative Conceptions: A Case Study in Current Electricity. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29 (3),