Many pupils think that atoms do not move in a solid

Properties of Matter


Pupils may think that matter is continuous and static or that particles do not move in the solid state. This could be because diagrams representing particles in a solid as tightly packed are understood to imply that there is no scope for any particle movement (such as vibration).


  • Boz, Y., () Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter, Journal of Science Education, 15 (2)


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  • Özmen, H., Kenan, O., () Determination of the Turkish Primary Students' Views about the Particulate Nature of Matter, Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 8 (1).

    Review sheet

  • Tsai, C., () Overcoming Junior High School Students' Misconceptions about Microscopic Views of Phase Change: A Study of an Analogy Activity, Journal of Science Education and Technology, 8 (1)


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  • Andersson, B., () Pupils' Conceptions of Matter and its Transformations (age 12-16), Studies in Science Education, 18,


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  • Adadan, E., Irving, K. E. and Trundle, K. C., () Impacts of Multi-representational Instruction on High School Students' Conceptual Understandings of the Particulate Nature of Matter, International Journal of Science Education, 31 (13),


    Review sheet

  • Adbo, K. and Taber, K. S., () Learners' Mental Models of the Particle Nature of Matter: A study of 16-year-old Swedish science students, International Journal of Science Education, 31 (6)


    Review sheet

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