Energy
Energy and Thermal Physics

A lot of bottle

Stories from Physics for 11-14 14-16 IOP RESOURCES

A paper by a team of forensic pathologists calculated the energy required to break beer bottles in order to determine whether they were capable of fracturing a human skull. They determined that full bottles were broken by 30 J of work done whereas empty bottles shattered by a transfer of around 40 J (based on sample of six bottles). The breaking energies were calculated by dropping a 1 kg steel ball onto the bottles in a materials’ testing drop tower. The authors report that electrohydraulic experiments with human cadavers had found that skull fractures occurred in different regions of the skull at energies between 14.1 J and 68.5 J. They conclude that beer bottles may act as formidable weapons.

References

Energy
appears in the relation ΔEΔt>ℏ/2 ΔQ=mcΔθ E=hf E ∝ A^2
has the special case Photon Energy
is used in analyses relating to Emission/Absorption Spectra Phase Change
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