Energy Transferred by Working
Electricity and Magnetism

Cells revisited

Physics Narrative for 14-16 Supporting Physics Teaching

A model of internal resistance in terms of energy

An electric cell is a part of the circuit in which there is current. Therefore there must be a current in the cell, as well as in the wires in the circuit. Remember that putting a cell into a circuit starts the charge moving everywhere – including charge in the cell.

Real cells are made of materials with a resistance

Just like a wire, a cell isn't perfect. Both are special arrangements of atoms through which the charged particles move while there is a current. Both have a resistance, which is usually ignored in our models of the circuit. However, cells, like wires, can get very hot as a result of large currents in the cell. Even a small resistance, and therefore a small potential difference, can result in a large power in the pathway if the current is large. The power switched in the cell as a result of this action is then not available to the rest of the circuit. And a cell that provides less power for a given current is a cell with a smaller potential difference. So drawing large currents through cells significantly drops the potential difference across the cell.

This resistance of the cell is called the internal resistance, and it can usually be safely ignored in models that describe circuits with moderate currents. A car starter motor draws 30 ampere – not a moderate current. You will notice the headlights dimming when you start the car as a result of this reduced potential difference.

The output coil of a transformer acts like a small cell when the magnetic effect through the coil changes. This cell may contain a lot of wire, so it too has an internal resistance. This could be put to use, designing sources with high internal resistance, so that the current that can be drawn is limited.

In fact, all sources of potential difference have some internal resistance, and this is a feature that is often considered in choosing a particular source. One reason why the domestic mains supply is to be treated with respect is that its effective internal resistance is rather small – it has to be, or the sockets and supply wiring would get rather warm.

Energy Transferred by Working
appears in the relation dU=dQ+dW
is used in analyses relating to Working Engines Thermionic Emission
is a special case of Work
has the special case Potential Energy Kinetic Energy
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