Bogina and Roberts (2005)

The paper discusses the outcomes of a lesson designed to assess pupils' understanding of the Earth and seasons through the writing of a Haiku. It was carried out by a university lecturer and teacher in the USA.

Learners’ ideas

  • The cause of seasons is the Earth's rotation.
  • The cause of seasons is the eccentric nature of the Earth's orbit.


  • Dual assessment methods lead to a deeper understanding of the seasons.

Study Structure


An assessment of an innovative way for students to report their understanding of the cause of the seasons.

Evidence collection

Evidence of a five-sentence haiku from a portfolio was collected after a lesson. These were scored by the researcher.

Details of the sample

A total of 34 boys and 24 girls of middle school age (11-12 years old).

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